Apoptosis is a form of programmed and controlled cell death that accounts for the majority of cellular death in bioprocesses. Cell death affects culture longevity and product quality; it is instigated by several stresses experienced by the cells within a bioreactor. Understanding the factors that cause apoptosis as well as developing strategies that can protect cells is crucial for robust bioprocess development. This review aims to a) address apoptosis from a bioprocess perspective; b) describe the significant apoptotic mechanisms linking them to the most relevant stresses encountered in bioreactors; c) discuss the design of operating conditions in order to avoid cell death…

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