Controlling acidic charge variants is critical for an industrial bioprocess due to the potential impact on therapeutic efficacy and safety. Achieving a consistent charge variant profile at manufacturing scale remains challenging and may require substantial resources to investigate effective control strategies. This is partially due to incomplete understanding of the underlying causes for charge variant formation during the cell culture process. To address this gap, we examined the effects of four process input factors (temperature, iron concentration, feed media age, and antioxidant (rosmarinic acid) concentration) on charge variant profile. These factors were found to affect the charge profile by modulating the cell culture oxidative state. Learn More