Spatially Resolved Effects of Protein Freeze-Thawing in a Small-Scale Model Using Monoclonal Antibodies



Protein freeze-thawing is frequently used to stabilize and store recombinantly produced proteins after different unit operations in upstream and downstream processing. However, freeze-thawing is often accompanied by product damage and, hence, loss of product. Different effects are responsible, including cold denaturation, aggregation effects, which are caused by inhomogeneities in protein concentration, as well as pH and buffer ingredients, especially during the freeze cycle. In this study, we tested a commercially available small-scale protein freezing unit using immunoglobin G (IgG) as monoclonal antibody in a typical formulation buffer containing sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, and Tween 80… Learn More