A U.S. Patent Application for the “Detection of pH Utilizing Raman” was published by UK Research & Innovation on September 12th, 2019. The present invention includes methods and apparatus for measuring pH in a sub-surface volume of a diffusely scattering sample. Probe light is directed to an entry region on the sample surface, and collected from a collection region on the sample surface following diffuse scattering within the sample. The collection region is spatially offset from the entry region, so that when one or more Raman spectral features are detected in the collected probe light, a pH of the sub-surface volume can be determined from the spectral features. Learn More